List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Central America. South Africa - South Africa - Growth of the colonial economy: From 1770 to 1870 the region became more fully integrated into the world capitalist economy. true. The region of the Western Cape which includes the Table Bay area (where the modern city of Cape Town is located) was inhabited by Today South Africa is an ethnically and culturally diverse country, where the descendants of the Dutch settlers form only a minority. A historical sketch of the development of the church under VOC and British rule its schisms and dissidents, as well as short data on other churches in the territory. 2,990 Views. After about 10 years most had prospered and had been able to take ownership of their lands. All rights reserved. The Cape society in this period was thus a diverse one. During the tenure of Simon van der Stel, the colony was elevated to the rank of a governorate, hence he was promoted to the position of "Governor of the Cape". About 4,000,000 use Afrikaans as second or third language in South Africa. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, The Dutch East India Company: VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), Map of Dutch settlements in Guyana and Suriname 1600-1750, The Dutch in Formosa 1624-1662, 1664-1668, Index of the Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon, Dutch and Portuguese remains in Sri Lanka: forts and churches, The Dutch Burghers of Sri Lanka. An illustrated social history (under Dutch and British rule) ? If you want to publish a study with regard to the geographical discoveries or colonialism, please contact me I will be happy to post it on Colonialvoyage. [2] The Cape came under VOC rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806. Hostility between British and Dutch settlers, known as Boers or Afrikaners, led to the Great Trek of 1835-43, a migration of Boers from the Cape who founded Natal, Orange Free State, and Transvaal. This was the original model of colonialism brought by the Dutch in 1652, and subsequently exported from the Western Cape to the Afrikaner Republics of the Orange Free State and the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek. 1998, Hilversum. The peace between Britain and Napoleonic France had broken after one year, while Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic (which he would replace with a monarchy later that year). English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The shipwreck victims built a small fort named "Sand Fort of the Cape of Good Hope". List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Asia. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini. My e-mail is at the bottom of the page. 296 p. Longmans 1939 London (reprint Witwatersrand University Press : 1957, 1968, 1978). The WIC would soon become a powerful force itself, even founding the Dutch coloni… There is also one congregation for Dutch-speaking people and four for Portuguese speakers. When Great Britain took over South Africa and the Dutch settlers moved farther North, which African group fought that expansion? During a visit in 1672, the high-ranking Commissioner Arnout van Overbeke made a formal purchase of the Cape territory, although already ceded in 1660, his reason was to "prevent future disputes". “Historiorgraphy of Europeans in Africa and Asia 1500-1800” Ashgate Variorum, vol. As a result it was looked down on as a kombuistaal (kitchen language) by the wealthier settlers who spoke High Dutch. Afrikaans was declared an official tongue of South Africa besides English in 1925. Zulus What valuable natural resources were discovered in South Africa after the British took control of that country? These areas were separated by the Amstel River (Liesbeek River). In 1621, the Dutch government approved the charter of the Dutch West Indian Company (West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) with the goal of basically messing with Spanish and Portuguese trade routes. Posted by: Marco Ramerini Emigrants from Holland were then encouraged to settle and colonize, bu… Monarch who commissioned reporter Henry Stanley to obtain land in the Congo in his name. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Arabia and Persian Gulf. The first school to be built in South Africa by the settlers were for the sake of the slaves who had been rescued from a Portuguese slave ship and arrived at the Cape with the Amersfoort in 1658. Under the terms of the Peace of Amiens of 1802, Britain acceded the colony to the Dutch on 1 March 1803, but as the Batavian Republic had since nationalized the United East India Company (1796), the colony came under the direct rule of The Hague. Boer, (Dutch: “husbandman,” or “farmer”), a South African of Dutch, German, or Huguenot descent, especially one of the early settlers of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. By 1700, the traditional "Khoekhoe" lifestyle of pastoralism, which they had learnt from Bantu agriculturalists and pastoralists, had disappeared. An Historical Sketch” ? The Dutch settlement history in South Africa began in March 1647 with the shipwreck of the Dutch ship The initial years were a struggle for the settlers but gradually, with hard work, conditions improved. Afrikaans is not only spoken by the White peoples of Dutch, Huguenot and German descent (about 60% of South Africa’s Whites), but also by the majority (about 90%) of the people of mixed descent (Coloureds). List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Africa. – Schutte, Gerrit “Between Amsterdam and Batavia: Cape society and the Calvinist church under the Dutch East India Company” ? The two areas which were allocated to the freemen, for agricultural purposes, were named Groeneveld and Dutch Garden. The principles of Christianity were also introduced at the school resulting in the baptisms of many slaves and indigenous residents. With Notices of the Other Denominations. Afrikaans is not only spoken by the White peoples of Dutch, Huguenot and German descent (about 60% of South Africa’s Whites), but also by the majority (about 90%) of the people of mixed descent (Coloureds). Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Asia Far East: China, Taiwan (Formosa), Japan. 66-108, – Guelke, Leonard “The anatomy of a colonial settler population: Cape Colony, 1657-1750” In: “An Expanding World” Vol. The Afrikaans Language Monument in Paarl. – Guelke, Leonard “Freehold farmers and frontier settlers, 1675-1780” In: “An Expanding World” Vol. One of these is a man whom van Riebeeck calls Herry. “The Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company charged Jan They traditionally dominated South Africa's politics and commercial agricultural sector prior to 1994. Of course, the argument is the colonial history and everything connected to it. The initial purpose of the settlement was … Also the length of the article is not a problem, the minimum lenght is about 450 words. In South African contexts, "Boers" ( Afrikaans: Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking settlers of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa during the 18th and much of the 19th century. This web site was first on line on 3 October 1998 (at geocities.com as "Dutch Portuguese Colonial History"). belgian settlers in south africa were known as boers. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Malacca, Thailand, and Philippines. Afrikaans variants are: Cape Afrikaans (West Cape Afrikaans), Orange River Afrikaans and East Cape Afrikaans. The Cape settlement was built by them in 1652 as a re-supply point and way-station for United East India Company vessels on their way back and forth between the Netherlands and Batavia (Jakarta) in the Dutch East Indies. CD Colin Pretorius 2013. The History of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka) during Portuguese and Dutch rule, Trincomalee: The first British occupation and the definitive Dutch surrender, Trincomalee: The consolidation of the Dutch presence, Trincomalee: The new Dutch occupation and the reconstruction of the Fort, Trincomalee: The Dutch conquest and the abandonment of the Fort, Trincomalee: The arrival of the Danes, the Dutch and the construction of the Portuguese Fort, The History of Trincomalee during Portuguese and Dutch rule: Introduction, The Dutch Fort of Galle in Sri Lanka (Ceylon), The Fort of Malacca: Portuguese-Dutch Fortress of Malacca (Melaka), The abortive expedition of Don Juan de Silva against the Dutch in the East Indies (1612-1616), Recife Forts: Fort do Brum, Fort das Cinco Pontas, Recife: the capital of sugar cane of Colonial Brazil, Fort Orange (Oranje), Itamaracá: a Dutch fortress in Brazil, Dutch in Chile: Hendrick Brouwer’s expedition to Valdivia, Dutch New York: The Dutch settlements in North America, Dutch and Courlanders on Tobago. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, South America. Today (2001 census) Afrikaans is the 3rd language of South Africa. – Worden, N. – Van Heyningen, E. – Bickford-Smith, V. “Cape town: the making of a city. South Africa’s modern history begins with the Dutch East India Company, which established trading posts for sailors along the coast. Rudi Ball (1911–1975), German-South African Hall … Boer ( / bʊər /) is Dutch and Afrikaans for "farmer". A more recent estimate (2005) of the South African population gives a total of 46,888,200 inhabitants of whom: African 37,205,700 (79,4%), White 4,379,800 (9,3%), Coloured 4,148,800 (8,8%) and Asian 1,153,900 (2,5%). According to the Namibian census 2001 the Afrikaans language is the second language of Namibia (11% of the total population). Britain seized Natal in 1843 but the other two territories became Boer republics. [5], Conflicts with the settlers and the effects of smallpox decimated their numbers in 1713 and 1755, until gradually the breakdown of their society led them to work for the colonists, mostly as shepherds and herdsmen. Dutch Settlement 1652-1712 Meeting the indigenous people – 6th April, Van Riebeeck makes the acquaintance of two Khoikhoi who had come aboard the Dromedaris. Human made waterway that cuts through the isthmus of suez and connects the red sea to the mediterranean. The title of the founder of the Cape Colony, Jan van Riebeeck, was installed as "Commander of the Cape", a position he held from 1652 to 1662. Leibrandt, P47 - 48, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dutch_Cape_Colony&oldid=997070424, Former settlements and colonies of the Dutch East India Company, States and territories established in 1652, States and territories disestablished in 1806, 17th-century establishments in the Cape Colony, 1806 disestablishments in the Dutch Empire, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 31 August 1737 – 19 September 1737 (died after three weeks in office), 1772 – 23 January 1773 (died at sea on his way to the Cape), This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 21:32. The first and largest wave of Dutch settlers in Brazil was between 1640 and 1656. In 1652, Dutch emigrants first settled in South Africa near the Cape of Good Hope to establish a station where ships traveling to the Dutch East Indies (currently Indonesia) could rest and resupply. The more modern name for the white South Africans descended from Dutch settlers (earlier known as Boers). Dutch in Africa. The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was a United East India Company (VOC) colony in Southern Africa, centered on the Cape of Good Hope, whence it derived its name. By the time of British rule after 1795, the sociopolitical foundations were firmly laid. The British occupied the Cape in 1795, ending the Dutch East India Company’s role in the region. The freemen or free burghers as they were afterwards termed, thus became subjects, and were no longer servants, of the Company.[6]. Beginning in the 17th century with the tiny Dutch settlement, the book charts the growth of Cape Town over almost three centuries, ending with the British colonial city. The original colony and its successive states that the colony was incorporated into occupied much of modern South Africa. E. J. Brill, 1991, Leiden, NL. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Sri Lanka (Ceylon). According to the South African Census 2001, Afrikaans is the majority language in Western Cape province (2,500,748 speakers) and Northern Cape province (559,189 speakers) it’s the second language in Eastern Cape province (600,057 speakers), in Free State province (323,082 speakers), in Gauteng province (1,269,176 speakers), in North West province (275,681 speakers); there is a large number of speakers also in the other provinces: Kwa-zulu Natal (140,833 speakers, 4th), Limpopo (122,531 speakers, 4th) and Mpumalanga (192,129 speakers, 5th). 21, n° 3 1988, Boston, MA, USA, pp. – Trotter, A. F. “Old Cape Colony: a Chronicle of Her Men and Houses from 1652 to 1806.” ??? A. The first European settlers in South Africa were sponsored by the Dutch East India Company which controlled Netherlands trade between India and East Asia. VOC Cape Colony at its largest extent in 1795, Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1962), Commanders and governors of the Cape Colony (1652–1806). Marco Ramerini: Contact: e-mail voyage@colonialvoyage.com, Web site dedicated to Arnold van Wickeren, The Dutch East India Company (VOC) symbol it's still at the entrance gate of the Castle of Good Hope (Kasteel de Goede Hoop), Cape Town, South Africa. [2] After King Louis XIV of France revoked the Edict of Nantes (October 1685), which had protected the right of Huguenots in France to practise Protestant worship without persecution from the state, the colony attracted many Huguenot settlers, who eventually mixed with the general Vryburgher population. 293-313 Also in: “International Journal of African Historical Studies” Vol. In 1797 their populations were:[7]. However, most of the settlers remained in the colony under new leadership of the British. “Historiorgraphy of Europeans in Africa and Asia 1450-1800” Ashgate Variorum, vol. – Gerstner, J. Neil “The thousand generation covenant : Dutch Reformed covenant theology and group identity in colonial South Africa, 1652-1814” ? In 1806, the Cape, now nominally controlled by the Batavian Republic, was occupied again by the British after their victory in the Battle of Blaauwberg. Dutch Ceylon, Trincomalee: Bibliography. The Reformed Church or Gereformeerde Kerk consists of three related churches, which according to a census represent more than 3,000,000 people. They stayed for nearly one year and were rescued by a fleet of 12 ships under the command of W.G. Jan van Riebeeck established the colony as a re-supply and layoverport for vessels of the VOC tr… This group of first settlers … As these farms were labour-intensive, Vryburghers imported slaves from Madagascar, Mozambique and Asia (Dutch East Indies and Dutch Ceylon), which rapidly increased the number of inhabitants. false (european) The Dutch Settlement. with 2 lithograph plates, W & C Inglis, 1869. Between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the United East India Company (VOC). WIC (West-Indische Compagnie), Australia and the Dutch East India Company (VOC), India. The settlers built houses, shops, taverns and offices and a new town grew. By order of that company in 1652, Jan van Riebeeck arrived with a few other Dutch settlers at the Cape of Good Hope to establish this half-way station so that fresh vegetables and fruits could be provided to prevent scurvy among the Company’s sailors. Today, descendants of the Boers are commonly referred to as Afrikaners. There were also farmers outside the town. The Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. List of Dutch forts and colonial possessions, North America. [3] Much to the dismay of the shareholders of the VOC, who focused primarily on making profits from the Asian trade, the colony rapidly expanded into a Settler Colony in the years after its founding. Starting in the 17th century, Dutch settlers relied on slaves to build up South Africa. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions, The Portuguese in Bassein (Baçaim, Vasai): the ruins of a Portuguese town in India, The Spanish Presence in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore, Portuguese Empire: Africa, America and Asia maps, The Russians in America: Alaska and California, Flor de la Mar (Flor do Mar), 1511. History of South Africa, 1484 - 1691, G.M. In the 17th century, the southernmost point of Africa where the Atlantic and Indian oceans meet became a desirable half-way haven for the Dutch East India Company which was trading with India. In 1795, after the Battle of Muizenberg in present-day Cape Town, the British occupied the colony. With colonialism, which began in South Africa in 1652, came the Slavery and Forced Labour Model. In the 2001 census South Africa had 44,819,778 inhabitants of whom 35,416,166 were Bantus (Zulu, Sotho, Xhosa, Tswana, Tsonga, Swazi, Ndebele and others), 4,293,640 were Whites (mostly Boers and British), 3,994,505 were Coloureds (people of mixed descent mainly Whites and Hottentots, the latter also called Namas or Khoi Khois) and 1,115,467 were Asians (mostly Indians, a few Chinese). 174-216 Also in: “The shaping of South African Society 1652-1840” 1986, Middelton, Connecticut, USA, pp. 5,983,426 are Afrikaans first language speakers in South Africa, 146,000 in Namibia and 20,000 in Botswana. illustrations throughout, County Library series No.II. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Africa. The Afrikaaners/Afrikaners (Boers) have a rich mix of cultures in their blood: one estimate shows 40% Dutch, 40% German, 7.5% British (mainly Scots), 7.5% French and 5% others. People became carpenters, bricklayers, inn keepers, bankers, officials and blacksmiths. Today the Dutch Reformed Church has also six English-language congregations. Dutchmen soon started settling the area, with little, if any, conflict with the native Khoisan population. The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simon's Town and, following the defeat of the Dutch militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory. It has been theorised that "a number of non-professing Jews" were among the first settlers of Cape Town. Dutch settlement in South Africa began in March 1647, the Dutch ship Nieuwe Haarlem, wrecked at the Cape. After several years of service in the company, an employee could lease a piece of land in the colony as een Vryburgher ("a free citizen"), on which he had to cultivate crops that he had to sell to the United East India Company for a fixed price. Traders of the United East India Company (VOC), under the command of Jan van Riebieeck, were the first people to establish a European colony in South Africa. The original colony and its successive states that the colony was incorporated into occupied much of modern South Africa. The two smaller Reformed Churches are the Nederduitsche Hervormde Kerk and the Gereformeerde Kerk, which form part of the Afrikaans-language churches. false (dutch) racism is the name for the belief that one race is superior to others. His name is Autshumato (c.1611-1663) Chief of the Goringhaicona Khoikhoi. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, South East Asia and the Far East. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Indonesia. By the end of 1847, following annexation by Britain of the former Boer republic of Natalia, nearly all the Boers had left their former republic, which the British renamed Natal. A Dutch colony was established in Northeast Brazil; over 30.000 people settled in the region. The Dutch Settlement. Dutch Colonial Remains 16th-18th centuries, Oceania. Copyright © 1998-2020. The other churches are the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa, which is the result of the merging in April 1994 of: – Nederduitse Gereformeerde Sendingkerk, (traditionally the church of the coloured people), – Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Afrika, (traditionally black people), – Indian Reformed Church in Africa, (with predominantly Indian members). de Jong. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, America. The combined forces of the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France defeated Russia over control of the Black Sea. Jan van Riebeeck established the colony as a re-supply and layover port for vessels of the VOC trading with Asia. www.colonialvoyage.com © Copyright 1998-2020, All Rights Reserved. [4], The VOC favoured the idea of freemen at the Cape and many settlers requested to be discharged in order to become free burghers; as a result, Jan van Riebeeck approved the notion on favorable conditions and earmarked two areas near the Liesbeek River for farming purposes in 1657. Leopold II of Belgium. Group of people who traveled to Africa to promote Christianity. It’s the majority language in Karas region (40%) and in Hardap region (44%); it’s the second language in Erongo region (22%) and in Khomas Region (24%); it’s the third language in Omaheke Region (12%). After the war, the natives ceded the land to the settlers in 1660. Some Boers migrated to other parts of the world, such as Patagonia in Argentina, where there is still an Afrikaans-speaking community. The Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK) is the largest of the three churches and has now more than 1,200 congregations and 1,300,000 members. In total there are about 2,000 members in these congregations. There are no specific guidelines. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, India. A history of the first settlements 1628-1677, The Castle of Good Hope: A Dutch Fort in South Africa, The Dutch in South Africa, 1652-1795 and 1802-1806, The Dutch on São Tomé and Principe: the attacks on the island of Principe (1598) and São Tomé (1599), The Dutch on Mauritius 1638-1658, 1664-1710, The Portuguese on the Persian Gulf and on the Arabian Peninsula, The Portuguese in Ceylon: The Portuguese in Sri Lanka before the war with the Dutch, The Jesuit Missions in South America: Jesuits Reductions in Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil, Fort Jesus Mombasa: a Portuguese fortress in Kenya, India. The name went to South Africa with the Dutch settlers in 1652. The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was a Dutch United East India Company (VOC) Colony in Southern Africa, centered on the Cape of Good Hope, whence it derived its name. In order to avoid collision with the Bantu peoples advancing south, north and west from east central Africa, the VOC agreed in 1780 to make the Great Fish River the boundary of the colony. There they contested still wider groups of Khoe-speaking cattle herders for the best grazing lands. Afrikaans Creole languages are: Oorlams and Flaai Taal. A shipwrecked Portuguese Galleon, A Portuguese fort in Madagascar: the fort near Tolanaro, The Portuguese in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore, Tidore: The Spanish forts on the island of Tidore, 1606-1663, South East Asia and in Far East Asia. Later on, the school was also attended by the children of the indigenes and the Free Burghers. Ending the Dutch East India Company began the first van der Merwes hail from the.. Malay and Portuguese Creole words Brill, 1991, Leiden, NL area with... Chronicle of Her Men and houses from 1652 to 1806. ”????. Riebeeck was aboard one of these is a man whom van Riebeeck Kerk ( ). 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